Let’s start :- Reading for ielts tips of Classification/Matching name of people
10. Classification/Matching name of people with their ideas or statements
reading for ielts tips In classification types of questions just find the name of the person and read around it carefully. The rules for finding answers to this sort of question are simple. It is important to underline Names, Dates, and Numbers in the text. Then, give a quick look to check whether there is another statement or idea provided by the same person in the text. If there is, check the reference carefully and decide your answer. Remember, the questions may not follow any sequential order.
Questions 1-4 reading for ielts tips
Look at the following people (Questions 1-4) and the list of ideas below.
Match each person with the correct idea, A-E.
Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.
1 Peter Toohey
2 Thomas Goetz
3 John Eastwood
4 Francoise Wemelsfelder
List of Ideas
A The way we live today may encourage boredom.
B One sort of boredom is worse than all the others.
C Levels of boredom may fall in the future.
D Trying to cope with boredom can increase its negative effects.
E Boredom may encourage us to avoid an unpleasant experience.
A We all know how it feels – it’s impossible to keep your mind on anything, time stretches out, and all the things you could do seem equally unlikely to make you feel better. But defining boredom so that it can be studied in the lab has proved difficult. For a start, it can include a lot of other mental states, such as frustration, apathy, depression and indifference. There isn’t even agreement over whether boredom is always a low-energy, flat kind of emotion or whether feeling agitated and restless counts as boredom, too. In his book, Boredom: A Lively History, Peter Toohey at the University of Calgary, Canada, compares it to disgust – an emotion that motivates us to stay away from certain situations. ‘If disgust protects humans from infection, boredom may protect them from “infectious” social situations,’ he suggests.
Q1. Peter Toohey
Paragraph A:-an idea shared by peter toohey. Look at the last lines, “If disgust protects humans from infection, boredom may protect them from “infectious” social situations…”Meaning of this – Boredom may help us to avoid an unpleasant situation. Here, infection means displeasing/unpleasant.
So, Answer will be: – E
Note: – Do not write full statement (Boredom may encourage us to avoid an unpleasant experience) only write a letter like (E)
PARAGRAPH B & E
B By asking people about their experiences of boredom, Thomas Goetz and his team at the University of Konstanz in Germany have recently identified five distinct types: indifferent, calibrating, searching, reactant and apathetic. These can be plotted on two axes – one running left to right, which measures low to high arousal, and the other from top to bottom, which measures how positive or negative the feeling is. Intriguingly, Goetz has found that while people experience all kinds of boredom, they tend to specialise in one. Of the five types, the most damaging is ‘reactant’ boredom with its explosive combination of high arousal and negative emotion. The most useful is what Goetz calls ‘indifferent’ boredom: someone isn’t engaged in anything satisfying but still feels relaxed and calm. However, it remains to be seen whether there are any character traits that predict the kind of boredom each of us might be prone to.
E Eastwood’s team is now trying to explore why the attention system fails. It’s early days but they think that at least some of it comes down to personality. Boredom proneness has been linked with a variety of traits. People who are motivated by pleasure seem to suffer particularly badly. Other personality traits, such as curiosity, are associated with a high boredom threshold. More evidence that boredom has detrimental effects comes from studies of people who are more or less prone to boredom. It seems those who bore easily face poorer prospects in education, their career and even life in general. But of course, boredom itself cannot kill – it’s the things we do to deal with it that may put us in danger. What can we do to alleviate it before it comes to that? Goetz’s group has one suggestion. Working with teenagers, they found that those who ‘approach’ a boring situation – in other words, see that it’s boring and get stuck in anyway – report less boredom than those who try to avoid it by using snacks, TV or social media for distraction.
Q2. Thomas Goetz
Here, we got TWO references for Thomas Goetz paragraph B & E. So, we need to look at paragraph B first. If we did not find answer there, we can have a look at paragraph E.
Paragraph B:-in begging, we can see that Thomas Goetz and his team have identified five types of boredom and when you read further, Writer says, “Of the five types, the most damaging is ‘reactant’ boredom with its explosive combination of high arousal and negative emotion.”
We have got answer at paragraph B so, we have no needed to read next paragraph E because this answer is sufficient according to statement (One sort of boredom is worse than all the others)
So, answer will be: – B
D Psychologist John Eastwood at York University in Toronto, Canada, isn’t convinced. ‘If you are in a state of mind-wandering you are not bored,’ he says. ‘In my view, by definition boredom is an undesirable state.’ That doesn’t necessarily mean that it isn’t adaptive, he adds. ‘Pain is adaptive – if we didn’t have physical pain, bad things would happen to us. Does that mean that we should actively cause pain? No. But even if boredom has evolved to help us survive, it can still be toxic if allowed to fester.’ For Eastwood, the central feature of boredom is a failure to put our ‘attention system’ into gear. This causes an inability to focus on anything, which makes time seem to go painfully slowly. What’s more, your efforts to improve the situation can end up making you feel worse. ‘People try to connect with the world and if they are not successful there’s that frustration and irritability,’ he says. Perhaps most worryingly, says Eastwood, repeatedly failing to engage attention can lead to state where we don’t know what to do any more, and no longer care.
Q3. John Eastwood
Again, we got TWO references for John Eastwood paragraph D & E. So, we need to look at paragraph D first. If we did not find answer there, we can have a look at paragraph E which is given above.
Paragraph D: – Here, “…For Eastwood, the central feature of boredom is a failure to put our ‘attention system’ into gear. This causes an inability to focus on anything, which makes time seem to go painfully slowly…” The lines indicate that if anyone tried and cannot focus on anything (attention system failure), this may give a bad feeling that the time has slowed down which may make anyone more and more irritated.
Now, we have got answer at paragraph D so, we have no needed to read next paragraph E because this answer is sufficient according to statement (Trying to cope with boredom can increase its negative effects)
So, answer will be: – D
F Psychologist Francoise Wemelsfelder speculates that our over-connected lifestyles might even be a new source of boredom. ‘In modern human society there is a lot of overstimulation but still a lot of problems finding meaning,’ she says. So instead of seeking yet more mental stimulation, perhaps we should leave our phones alone, and use boredom to motivate us to engage with the world in a more meaningful way.
Q4. Francoise Wemelsfelder
There is only one reference to Francoise Wemelsfelder and that’s in Paragraph F.
Paragraph F: – Look at line first, “Psychologist Francoise Wemelsfelder speculates that our over-connected lifestyles might even be a new source of boredom.” This clearly indicates that our present lifestyle may inspire boredom.
So, answer will be: – A reading for ielts tips
In next post we will learn about identifying information (find information).
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